Allemande      A stately 16th-century dance in duple meter.

Bächle      The rivulets that flow in Freiberg’s streets to water cattle, contain fires, and carry away refuse. 

Budge     An inexpensive lambskin with the wool turned out.

Bull         An official pronouncement issued by the Pope and named for the bulla or seal which is affixed to the end to authenticate it.  One of the most famous Papal Bulls was Exsurge Domine, issued in 1520 by Leo X against Martin Luther and publicly burned by Luther.

Bundshuh     A coarse peasant work shoe.

Costrel     A ceramic drinking flask.

Fidel      A stringed instument, forerunner to the violin.

Karnöffel     A card game originating in upper German Lands before 1426.

Landsknecht      (German plural Landsknechte)  A European, most often German, mercenary pikeman or supporting foot soldier from the late 15th to the late 16th century.  Landsknechte achieved the reputation for being the universal mercenary of early modern Europe.  (      

Nominalism     (Latin, belonging to a name)  The view that things called by the same name share nothing except that name.  There are no universal concepts but only individual entities.  Nominalism is one of the most important elements in the philosophy of William of Ockham.  During the 16th century, Nominalism was in conflict with the older philosophy called Realism.   See also Of Truth and Cards

Pudlin      A German curly-haired water retriever used in falconry and other hunting from the High Middle Ages onward, often clipped to facilitate movement in water and brush.  Also called poodle.

Real Presence     The belief that Christ’s actual body and blood are present in the bread and wine which are consumed in the sacrament of the Eucharist.

Rapiaria      A notebook for recording quotations and inspirational sayings to aid devotion.

Realism     The scholastic doctrine that universal concepts exist independently of individual objects.  Realism is opposed to nominalism, which denies that universals exist (except as words).  Moral realism holds that moral qualities (good/bad, right/wrong) exist in themselves and are not explained in terms of the subject’s feelings of approval or disapproval.  See also Of Truth and Cards   

Scholasticism     The dominant western Christian theological and philosophical school of the Middle Ages.  The schoolmen or scholastics of the 12th, 13th, and 14th centuries attempted to reconcile Christian theology with the secular understanding of the ancient world, as exemplified by Aristotle.  During the Renaissance, the deductive logic of scholasticism was superseded by the inductive methods of modern science, while its theological methods were challenged by the emergence of humanism.

Switzer (Schweizer)     A name of derision for an inhabitant of the cantons and cities which formed a defensive coalition to separate themselves from the Holy Roman Empire.  Though they referred to themselves as Eidgenossen (Confederates), the primary occupation of these areas was farming, and their German enemies called them cow swiss (cowherd, bumpkin, cow intimate) and their land Schweizerland 

Tripe      Inexpensive meat dish of the stomach lining of cattle or sheep.

Zibellino     The pelt of a sable or marten worn about the neck.  These animals had become symbols of purity because of the fable that they bore young through their ears.

Published on February 28, 2011 at 2:26 pm  Leave a Comment  

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